Thin Films Analysis
- Multi-element detection for chemical information across a surface or for depth profiling through layers
- High speed detection
- High mass resolution allowing you to separate interfering ions
Thin films are part of our daily life and are used in a wide variety of applications, such as special glass coatings for light emitting devices and optical mirrors, electronic devices in computers, memory storage devices, and solar cells. Thin films are a layered material manufactured at the nanometer to micron scale. While several methods exist to prepare these thin films (i.e molecular beam epitaxy, chemical vapor deposition, pulsed-laser deposition and atomic layer deposition), none guarantees a perfect stoichiometry transfer from the target material to the synthesized thin film. Because the material’s properties will depend on their elemental composition, and will be affected by contamination, analytical methods for stochiometric analysis of thin films is of great interest for material science.
Femtosecond laser ablation inductively coupled plasma time-of-flight mass spectrometry (fs-LA-ICP-TOFMS) can be used for the determination of the stoichiometry of thin films with high spatial and depth resolution. This analytical technique combines the advantages of femtosecond lasers for precise removal of material with the fast and multi-element detection capabilities of ICP-TOFMS, yielding chemical information across a surface or for depth profiling through layers.
For nm depth resolution profiling of inorganic layers plasma profiling time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PP-TOFMS) uses a fast glow discharge plasma sputtering source to erode the surface and generate the depth profiles. Thanks to its high throughput, speed, ease of operation, high dynamic range, full mass coverage and uniform elemental sensitivity, PP-TOFMS is a valuable characterization tool for any process engineer and material scientist.
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Plasma Profiling Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (PP-TOFMS)
Plasma Profiling TOFMS
High Resolution Depth Profiling by fs-LA Using the icpTOF
- All the elements. All the time. The icpTOF always records complete mass spectra, so you never miss an analyte or interference signal.
- High mass resolution. The icpTOF 2R has a mass resolving power of 6000 allowing you to separate interfering ions.
- Precise isotope ratios. The icpTOF simultaneously measures all isotopes, thus eliminating the susceptibility of your measurements to source and sample fluctuations. Precision approaches statistical limits.
- High speed detection. The icpTOF records a complete mass spectrum every 12-50 µs making it the optimum detector for fast transient signals such laser ablation pulses.
- Compatibility with major laser companies
- Dedicated workflow for laser ablation
Close-to-Process Elemental Depth Profiling Using the PP-TOFMS
- High depth resolution. Nanometer thin layers can be resolved.
- High throughput and and ease of use. Without the need to transfer sample in UHV and sputtering rates as high as 40 nm/s, analysis only takes few minutes.
- Semi-quantification in one click/without reference sample. Sputtering and gas phase ionization yield only slightly vary over elements in the periodic table. The ion beam ratio method allows estimation of atomic concentration with an accuracy of a 2-3 factor for most elements.
- Full elemental coverage and high sensitivity. Major elements and dopants can be detected at any point of the depth profile. Identification of fully unknown layers and the detection of unexpected contamination becomes easy.
Nolot et al. Accelerating the development of phase-change random access memory with in-fab plasma profiling time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Surface and Interface Analysis, 2020. DOI: 10.1002/sia.6823
Torrengo et al. Quantitative depth-profile analysis of transition metal nitride materials with combined grazing-incidence X-ray fluorescence and X-ray reflectometry analysis. Spectrochimica Acta, 2020. DOI: 10.1016/j.sab.2020.105926
Spende et al. Plasma profiling time-of-flight mass spectrometry for fast elemental analysis of semiconductor structures with depth resolution in the nanometer range. Semiconductor Science and Technology, 2020. DOI: 10.1088/1361-6641/ab6ac0
Mazel et al. Multitechnique elemental depth profiling of InAlGaN and InAlN films. Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology, 2018. DOI: 10.1116/1.5019635