The high resolution of the IMS-TOF enables confident analysis of isomers, protein conformers, and lipids

Atmospheric-pressure, drift-tube ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) with high-speed TOFMS detection. Fast, decisive 2-dimensional separations with IMS resolving power up to 200.

Advantages of the IMS-TOF

  • Separate isomers with IMS resolving power of up to 200
  • Measure accurate and reproducible collision cross sections (CCS) without calibration
  • Resolve and identify protein and peptide conformers
  • Analyze unknowns based on CCS, accurate mass, and CID
  • Improve sensitivity 200x compared to conventional DTIMS using artifact-free multiplexing

The IMS-TOF utilizes a drift-tube ion mobility spectrometer (DTIMS) coupled with a high-speed TOF mass spectrometer.

IMS Resolving Power Up to 200
 IMS Pressure  800 – 1400 mbar ± 1 mbar
 IMS Temperature  ambient – 150°C ± 1°C
 Mass Resolving Power  up to 10000
 Relative Mass Accuracy  2 ppm (internal calibration)
 Sensitivity  150 counts/fmol reserpine
 Dimensions  120 x 60 x 90 cm (bench-top)


Drift Tube IMS Cell

  • Use any drift gas in the the pressure and temperature-controlled IMS cell.
  • DTIMS is uniquely capable of direct CCS determination
  • Precisely controlled drift-tube pressure and temperature ensures reproducible CCS measurements


  • Compact, robust design for laboratory and field applications
  • Simple LC coupling with our flexible hardware, software and data format
  • Separation under high-pressure, low-field conditions preserves native structure of protein and supramolecular assemblies
  • IMS resolving power of 200 enables separation of isomers with CCS differences as low as 0.5%
  • Post-IMS CID for precursor and fragment correlation
  • Multiplexed IMS boosts the duty cycle from <1% to 50%, eliminating the conventional trade-offs between sensitivity, mobility range, and resolving power
  • Gas-tight ESI source reduces background signals and harmonizes with drift tube pressure


  • Easy-to-use software for data acquisition and post-processing, based on our open-source, multi-dimensional file format (HDF5)
  • Proprietary data processing yields real gains in signal/noise and IMS resolution

IMS-TOF Publications


  1. Gloess, A., et al., On-line analysis of coffee roasting with ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (IMS-MS), International Journal of Mass Spectrometry, 2017.  DOI:10.1016/j.ijms.2017.11.017
  2. Grössl, M. & Kornél Nagy, Benefits of ion mobility for analysing monochloropropane-diol esters, Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A, 2017. DOI:10.1080/19440049.2017.1325014
  3. Kiesilä, A., et al., Simultaneous endo and exo Complex Formation of Pyridine[4]arene Dimers with Neutral and Anionic Guests, Angewandte Chemie, 2017. DOI: 10.1002/anie.201704054
  4. Zhang, X., et al., Highly Oxygenated Multifunctional Compounds in α-Pinene Secondary Organic Aerosol, Environ. Science and Technology, 2017. DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.6b06588
  5. Sullivan, M., et al., The metalation of hen egg white lysozyme impacts protein stability as shown by ion mobility mass spectrometry, differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray crystallography, Chemical Comm., 2017. DOI: 10.1039/c6cc10150j


  1. Lemmnitzer, K., et al., Comparison of ion mobility-mass spectrometry and pulsed-field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for the differentiation of chondroitin sulfate isomers, Analytical Methods, 2016. DOI: 10.1039/c6ay02531e
  2. Zhang, X., et al., A novel framework for molecular characterization of atmospherically relevant organic compounds based on collision cross section and mass-to-charge ratio, AMT, 2016. DOI:10.5194/acp-16-12945-2016
  3. Krechmer, J., et al., Ion mobility spectrometry–mass spectrometry (IMS–MS) for on- and offline analysis of atmospheric gas and aerosol species, AMT, 2016. In Focus | :10.5194/amt-9-3245-2016
  4. Liu, W., et al., Multidimensional Separation of Natural Products Using Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Hadamard Transform Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry,  J. Am. Soc. Mass Spec., 2016 DOI: 10.1007/s13361-016-1346-8


  1. Jurcek, O., et al., Superchiral Pd3L6 Coordination Complex and Its Reversible Structural Conversion into Pd3L3Cl6 Metallocycles, Angewandte Chemie, 2015 In Focus | DOI: 10.1002/anie.201506539
  2. Groessl, M., et al., High resolution ion mobility-mass spectrometry for separation and identification of isomeric lipids,  Analyst, 2015, In Focus | DOI: 10.1039/C5AN00838G
  3. Bonakdarzadeh, P., et al., DOSY NMR, X‑ray Structural and Ion-Mobility Mass Spectrometric Studies on Electron-Deficient and Electron-Rich M6L4 Coordination Cages,  Inorg. Chem. 2015, In Focus  | DOI:10.1021/acs.inorgchem.5b01082
  4. Groessl, M., Analysis of Isomeric Lipids by High Resolution Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry,  63rd ASMS Conference, St. Louis, USA, 2015 In FocusPoster


  1. Zhang, X., Evaluation of Hadamard Transform Atmospheric Pressure Ion Mobility Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry for Complex Mixture Analysis” Anal. Chem., 2014. DOI: 10.1021/ac403435p
  2. Groessl, M., et al., Comparison of UHPLC-ESI-MS and Hadamard Transform Atmospheric Pressure Ion Mobility-ESI-MS for Profiling of Isomeric Flavonoids, Chimia, 2014. DOI:10.2533/chimia.2014.1


  1. Knochenmuss, R., et al., Multiplexed High Pressure Ion Mobility-TOFMS: High Resolution, Sensitivity and Structural Information in One Package, 61nd ASMS Conference on Mass Spectrometry and Allied Topics, 2013. Extended Abstract


  1. Harris, G., et al., Coupling laser ablation/desorption electrospray ionization to atmospheric pressure drift tube ion mobility spectrometry for the screening of antimalarial drug quality, Analyst, 2012. DOI: 10.1039/c2an35431d


  1. Crawford, Christina, et al., The novel use of gas chromatography-ion mobility-time of flight mass spectrometry with secondary electrospray ionization for complex mixture analysis, Int. J. Ion Mobility Spect. 2011. DOI: 10.1007/s12127-010-0057-2


  1. Kaplan, K., et al., Resistive Glass IM-TOFMS,  Anal. Chem., 2010. DOI: 10.1021/ac1017259
  2. Kwasnik, M. and F. Fernández, Theoretical and experimental study of the achievable separation power in resistive-glass atmospheric pressure ion mobility spectrometry,  Rapid Comm. Mass Spec, 2010. DOI: 10.1002/rcm.4592


  1. Mukhopadhyay, R., IMS/MS: Its time has come,  Anal. Chem., 2008. DOI: 10.1021/ac8018608


  1. Kwasnik, M., et al., Performance, resolving power, and radial ion distributions of a prototype nanoelectrospray ionization resistive glass atmospheric pressure ion mobility spectrometer, A. Chem., 2007. DOI: 10.1021/ac071226o

Application Notes

Conference Presentations

Customer Research

TOFWERK Publications

Background Knowledge About IMS-TOF

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